UNIT 11: SHOOTS

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Leaf primordia Interfascicular Pinnate Net venation Leaf buttress Thorn
Apical Dominance Leaf gap Mesophyte Parallel venation Marginal meristem Prickle
Node Leaf trace Hydrophyte Bundle sheath Determinate Tuber
Internode Blade Xerophyte Sulfur dioxide Sun-Shade leaves Stolon
Tunica Petiole Stomate Ozone Abscission Rhizome
Corpus Sheath Guard cell PAN Leaf scar Bulb
Central Mother Cells Rachis Mesophyll C4 Tendril Corm
Intercalary meristem Compound leaf Palisade Kranz anatomy Cladophylls Succulence
Pith ray Palmate Spongy Bulliform Spine

STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 11: SHOOTS

1 - Event which usually results in the growth of two lateral buds

2 - Structure formed by a lateral bud

3 - Point where a leaf is attached

4 - Stem structure formed when a leaf falls

5 - Structure within a leaf scar

6 - Used to determine 1 year growth in stem elongation

7 - Stem structure which is the site of gas exchange

8 - Small brown modified leaves

9 - Term for cell divisions which occur perpendicular to the surface

10 - General term for the layer which covers the apex

11 - General term for the body cells of the apex

12 - Genus of the coleus plant

13 - Specialized meristem which occurs at the base of the monocot stem

14 - Arrangement of the bundles of procambial tissue in the dicot stem

15 - Area between the vascular bundles in a primary dicot stem

16 - Central tissue in the dicot stem

17 - Organization of vascular bundles in a monocot stem

18 - Structure which forms the "stem" in tree-like monocots

19 - Tissues found in a leaf trace

20 - Type of compound leaf where the leaflets have a common point of           
 	attachment

21 - Small, leaf-like strucutres which may be found at the base of the petiole

22 - General term for plants which grow in very dry habitats

23 - Type of venation found in monocots

24 - Chlorophyll containing epidermal cells

25 - Specialized monocot leaf epidermal cell which is responsible for
     leaf rolling

26 - Primary photosynthetic leaf layer

27 - Leaf layer with large intercellular spaces

28 - Cell type found in a bundle cap

29 - Term for concentric layers of parenchyma found in C4 plants

30 - Plane of cell division which forms a leaf buttress

31 - Specialized dicot leaf meristem which influences leaf shape

32 - Technique used commercially to produce orchid clones

33 - Term for a modified branch which is rigid and sharp

34 - Term for branches which are leaf-like in appearance

35 - General type of enzyme produced by carnivorous plants and provides a      
	source of useable nitrogen

36 - Specialized stem and leaf structure which functions in onion food
     storage

37 - Carbohydrate stored in potato

38 - Specialized underground storage stem in potatoes


LECTURE OUTLINE

UNIT 11: SHOOTS

SHOOTS - stems and leaves

A - Twig morphology
     1 - Node, internode, leaf scar with bundle, scars, bud scars,
	 lenticels, buds                      
     2 - Types of buds - flower, leaf, mixed
     3 - Growth
       a - dormant - requires cold, shift in hormones, ABA and GA
       b - spring bud expansion

B - twig anatomy - dicot, longitudinal section
     1 - Apical dome - region of cell division
       a - tunica - covering, anticlinal division
       b - corpus - body, central mother cells, pith meristem, peripheral
           meristem, leaf and bud primordia
     2 - Region of elongation
       a - monocots - intercalary meristem
       b - dicots - three areas: protoderm, ground meristem, 
           procambial tissue 
     3- Region of maturation - mature primary tissues
       a - dicot - epidermis, cortex, vascular bundles, pith
       b - monocot - scattered bundles, bundle sheath, stem - sheathing leaf
           bases, some primary thickening meristem

C - Leaves   
     1 - Morphology
       a - arrangement - opposite, alternate, whorled
       b - structures
           (1) petiole, stipules
           (2) blade - simple, compound - pinnate, palmate
           (3) venation - netted, parallel
     2 - Anatomy
       a - epidermis - trichomes, stomates, xerophytes (dry) -
           thick cuticle, sunken stomates
       b - mesophyll - primary photosynthetic layer - spongy, palisade
       c - veins - bundle sheath, xylem, phloem
       d - C4 plants - two layers parenchyma cells
     3 - Development at stages - 
       a - buttress, pencil, shape marginal meristems
           size - sun, shade
       b - senescence - shorter days and cooler temperatures,
           abscission - control by auxin
       c - shift apex - bud scales, dormancy
       d - meristem cultures
     4 - Modified shoots -
       a - cladophylls
       b - thorns
       c - carnivory
       d - tuber
       e - rhizome
       f - bulb
       g - corm
       h - fleshy storage
       i - succulents


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