UNIT 13: GROWTH REGULATIONS

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Hormone Adventitious Tissue culture Kurosawa
Darwin Parthenocarpy BAP Gibberella
Avena Abscission Totipotency Gibberellin
Went Hydrolysis Mericlone GA3
Auxin Middle lamella Organogenesis Juvenile growth
Tryptophan Fruit drop Senescence Bolting
Bioassay Herbicide Ethylene Biennial
Indole Acid growth Methionine Thompson seedless
IAA Skoog ppm Aleurone
NAA Cytokinin Climacteric Endosperm
2, 4-D Adenine Ageotropic Amylase
Apical dominance Kinetin Degreen Starch
Callus Zeatin Abscissic acid


STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 13: GROWTH REGULATIONS

1 - Hormone with highest concentration in expanding buds

2 - Individual who first investigated phototropism

3 - Side of the coleoptile where auxin accumulates in unilateral light

4 - Bioassay used to detect auxin activity

5 - Ring structure found in IAA

6 - Plant part which is most sensitive to low auxin concentrations

7 - Hormone which controls apical dominance

8 - Material, in addition to auxin, which controls xylem differentiation in    
    wounded coleus stems

9 - Influence of endogenous auxin on root elongation

10 - Influence of endogenous auxin on root initiation

11 - A weak auxin

12 - An auxin which is used as a selective herbicide

13 - Structure which produces auxin which controls fruit development

14 - General group of plants which are killed by 2, 4-D

15 - Term for the production of seedless fruits

16 - General auxin concentration, in leaves, which inhibits abscission

17 - Enzyme which increases in the abscission zone

18 - The general influence of auxin spray on apple drop

19 - Hormone which primarily influences cellular elongation

20 - Cell structure which becomes more acid as a result of auxin treatment

21 - Hormone which controls cell division

22 - Cellular component which contains adenine

23 - Cytokinin which was discovered by Skoog and Miller

24 - Hormone which promotes callus proliferation

25 - Meaning of paradigm

26 - Cytokinins are derivatives of this cellular component

27 - Plant organ which produces cytokinins

28 - A naturally occuring cytokinin

29 - Organ which is produced in callus cultures, under the influence
     of high cytokinin concentrations

30 - General group of hormones which retard the yellowing of leaves

31 - Gasious hormone

32 - Hormone which interferes with geotropic response

33 - Hormone which promotes fruit ripening

34 - Term for reactions which are promoted by a product of the reaction

35 - Hormone which is used in the de-greening of oranges

36 - Hormone which promotes pineapple flowering

37 - The sex of cucumbers and flowers which is promoted by ethylene

38 - Growth regulator which promotes dormancy

39 - Hormone which promotes internode elongation in intact plants

40 - Hormone which was first isolated from a fungus

41 - Hormone which occurs in the most diverse forms in plants

42 - Hormone which is associated as a causal agent in dwarf plant form

43 - Hormone which is associated with juvenile growth

44 - Hormone which replaces a cold-requirement in certain seeds

45 - Hormone which induces parthenocarpy

46 - Enzyme promoted by gibberellin in seed germination

47 - Seed layer which produces amylase in barley germination

48 - Seed structure which produces gibberellin


LECTURE OUTLINE

UNIT 13: GROWTH REGULATORS

A - Plant Hormones - varied target tissue and processes effective in
    low concentrations
   1 - Indoleacetic acid (IAA)
       a - discovery
           (1) Darwin
           (2) Went
   2 - Synthesis and movement
       a - Tryptophan precurson - meristems
       b - Transport - Polar - Tip to base
   3 - Influences: Tissue vs Concentration
       a - vascular cambium differentiation
       b - xylem and phloem development
       c - root initiation and elongation
       d - fruit growth - example, strawberry
       e - abscission
       f - apical dominance
   4 - Applications of knowledge:
       a - control of growth and fruit development
       b - control of weeds

B - Cytokinins (ck)
   1 - Isolation -
       a - coconut milk
       b - breakdown product of DNA
       c - kinetin
       d - zeatin
   2 - Cell division
   3 - Organ formation - ratio with auxin (high ck - shoots, low ck - roots)
   4 - Senescence

C - Ethylene

   1 - Synthesis - simple hydrocarbon
   2 - Influences:
       a - fruit ripening - changes in color, taste, texture
       b - abscission
       c - sex expression

D - Abscisic acid
   1 - Influences:
       a - abscission
       b - dormancy
       c - stress

E - Gibberellins
   1 - Discovery - foolish rice
   2 - Influences:
       a - dwarf mutants - internode elongation
       b - seed germination - embryo - aleurone - endosperm amylase -
           sugar - respiration
       c - flowering
       d - fruit development

F - Plant Biotechnology
   1 - Totipotency suggested by Haberlandt
   2 - Steward - carrot, 100,000/plants/plate
       a - express full genetic potential
       b - micro-clonal propagation
   3 - Meristems - single cells, protoplasts
   4 - Natural gene transfomation
       a - Agrobacterium tumefaciens
       b - TiPlasmid - TDNA
   5 - Transformed cells - methods include restriction enzymes and ligases
   6 - Manipulations - gene engineering
   7 - Botanical benefits -
       a - fire-fly tobacco
       b - round-up tomato
       c - flavr-savr


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