UNIT 2: BACTERIA

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Plasmid Bacillus Transformation Akinetes
Anaerobic Spirillus Bacteriochlorophyll Anabaena
Aerobic Coccus Chromatophores Azolla
Pasteurization Gram Stain Prochloron Heterocysts
pH Peptidoglycan Autotrophic Nitrogenase
Heterotrophic Lipopolysaccharide Methanogenic Spirulina
Compost Glycocalyx Nitrification Autoclave
Mutation Capsule Denitrification Nitrogen Fixation
Antibiotic Endospores Nitrogen Rhizobium
Bacitracin Flagella Botulism Leghemoglobin
Protease Flagellin Salmonella Fire Blight
Lactobacillus Pilli Crown Gall T DNA
Swiss Cheese Conjugation Mycoplasm Ti Plasmid
Sauerkraut Transduction Hormogonia Reporter Genes
Bacteroid

STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 2: BACTERIA



1 - Group of organisms which is characterized by the absence of an organized
	nucleus

2 - Molecular component of a plasmid

3 - Group of organisms which do not contain an endoplasmic reticulum

4 - General term for cultures which contain only 1 organism

5 - General growth form of bacillus species

6 - General term for the organisms which grow more rapidly in the presence of
	oxygen

7 - Process for destroying cells by exposure to 160 degrees Centigrade for 15
	seconds

8 - A solution which is used in sterilization

9 - General pH range where bacteria do not grow rapidly

10 - Acid produced by aerobic bacterial fermentation of apple juice

11 - Primary ecological significance of bacteria

12 - Metabolic source of heat which is produced by bacteria

13 - Group of organisms which produce streptomycin

14 - Chemical which is produced by bacteria and adds to the characteristic     
 	flavor of swiss cheese

15 - A cheese which is produced by bacterial fermentation

16 - Term meaning rod shaped bacteria

17 - Chemical linked to amino acids in the bacterial cell walls

18 - Individual who developed a special stain to distinguish two general      
	bacterial groups

19 - Material which covers the peptidoglycan in gram negative organisms

20 - Term for a layer of tangled polysaccharides at the surface of bacterial   
   	cells

21 - Term for the gelatinous sheath outside the bacterial wall

22 - Specialized protein which is found in bacterial flagellae

23 - Structure which provides motility in bacterial cells

24 - Special hollow pilli are associated with this bacterial process

25 - Type of vegetative reproduction found in bacteria

26 - Term for movement of DNA which is mediated by a virus

27 - Term for the transfer of DNA which is mediated by a virus

28 - Composition of TMV

29 - Primary energy trapping reaction in photoautotrophic organisms

30 - General group of organisms which obtain their nourishment from dead      
	organic matter

31 - Energy trapping pigment in purple sulfur bacteria

32 - Element which accumulates in photoautotrophic bacteria

33 - General group of bacteria which obtain their energy from the oxidation of 
     inorganic molecules

34 - Plant structure where legume nitrogen fixation takes place

35 - Gas, produced by swamp bacteria, which has been used as a fuel

36 - General term for the conversion of ammonia to nitrate

37 - Genus of nitrogen fixing-symbiotic bacteria

38 - Term for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to NH4 or NH2

39 - Specific plant structure where symbiotic nitrogen fixation takes place

40 - In nitrogen fixation, the term for the invaginated plant membrane

41 - Specialized, enlarged Rhizobium bacterial cells which are involved in
       nitrogen fixation

42 - Unique oxygen binding material produced only in legume nodules

43 - A type of food poisoning caused by a potent toxin

44 - First plant disease which was shown to be caused by bacteria

45 - Disease produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

46 - Specific portion of DNA which is inserted into the host from
     Agrobacterium

47 - Specific plasmid which is involved in tumorization in Agrobacterium

48 - General term for the uptake and expression of foreign DNA

49 - A group of plant hormones produced in increased amounts in crown gall     
     tumor cells

50 - Serve as a specialized "food" for crown gall tumor cells

51 - Produced by Bacillus thuringensis and results in the destruction of the
     insect gut-following ingestion

52 - General group of organisms which causes the lethal yellows of coconut     
 	palms

53 - Group of organisms which include the smallest known organisms

54 - Group of prokaryotic organisms which are photosynthetic and can fix
	nitrogen

55 - Blue-green pigment associated with "blue-green algae"

56 - Resistant spore formed by cyanobacteria

57 - General term for a pigment which transfers energy to a pigment directly 
        associated with photosynthesis

58 - Type of chlorophyll which is the photosynthetic pigment

59 - An example of an accessory pigment

60 - Multicellular fragments associated with asexual reproduction in 
     cyanobacteria

61 - Specialized nitrogen fixing cells in Anabaena

62 - Enzyme which is required for nitrogen fixation


LECTURE OUTLINE

UNIT 2: BACTERIA

Prokaryotic - lack membrane organelles, no organized nucleus

Bacteria - oldest, simplest organisms

A - Kingdom - Eubacteria
   1 - Characteristics
        a. DNA plasmid - circular
        b. Internal membranes
        c. Form:  rod, spiral, spherical
        d. Cell wall - peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide gram +            
 		peptidoglycan only
   2 - Surface modifications
        a. Gelatinous capsule
        b. Endospores - resistant
        c. Flagella - flagellin, motile
        d. Glycocalyx-polysaccharide fibers
        e. Pilli - attachment, conjugation
   3 - Growth 
        a. Oxygen-anaerobic, aerobic
        b. Temperature - low, frozen foods; high, hot springs; Pasteurization
   4 - Ions
        a. Hydrogen - no growth acid conditions
        b. Salt - poor growth high salt
   5 - Growth inhibitors - alcohol, clorox, filter, autoclave
   6 - Reproduction
         a. Asexual - binary fission
         b. Genetic recombination
             (1) conjugation
             (2) transduction
             (3) transformation
   7 - Nutritional status
         a. Heterotrophic
         b. Autotrophic
             (1) photo-autotrophic with bacteriochlorophyll - sulfur bacteria
             (2) chemo-autotrophic: oxidation of inorganic molecules
   8 - Significance
         a. Ecological
             (1) decomposition, humus, soil
             (2) form of soil nitrogen
                   (a) nitrification
                   (b) denitrification
                   (c) nitrogen fixation
                       [1] free-living
                       [2] symbiotic-nodules
                             [a] Frankia
                             [b] Rhizobium - bacteroid, nitrogenase,
                                    leghemoglobin
         b. Metabolic diversity - selection of mutants
             (1) commercial products, enzymes, antibiotics, acid production -
                      vinegar, cheese
             (2) detrimental
                   (a) food spoilage
                         [1] Clostridium
                         [2] Salmonella
                    (b) water supplies
                          [1] E. Coli
                          [2] B.O.D.
          c. Diseases
              (1) human
              (2) plant - Erwinia, fire blight, citrus canker, Crown gall -
                    Agrobacterium:
                    (a) natural transformation
                    (b) hormone imbalance
                    (c) Ti plasmid - TDNA
                    (d) gene engineering
   9 - Specialized groups
        a. Cyanobacteria - Oxygen production, nitrogen fixation
              Pigments - chlorophyll A, phycoerythrins, phycocyanins
              Multiplication - hormogonia
              Anabaena - heterocysts,
              Azolla - rice paddies,
              Food - Spirulina, water pollution
         b. Mycoplasms - smallest cells, lethal yellowing disease of coconut


B - Kingdom Archaebacteria 1 - Methanogenic 2 - Thermophillic 3 - Halophillic

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