UNIT 3: FUNGI

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Hyphae Apothecium Crustose Agaricus
Mycelia Perithecium Foliose Shiitake
Chitin Cleistothecium Fruticose Amanita
Haustoria Karyogamy Cladonia Psilocybe
Zygomycete Budding Soredia Puff Ball
Non-septate Fermentation Basidiomycete Stink-Horn
Coenocytic Truffel Basidium Sori
Zygospores Wine Sterigma Teliomycete
Ascomycete Penecillin Plasmogamy Heteroecious
Conidiospore Roquefort Hymenium Teliospores
Ergot Aspergillus cap Barberry
Dutch Elm Aflatoxins Stalk Smut
Homothallic Fleming Gills Mycorhizae-(Endo,Ecto)
Ascocarp Symbiotic Fairy Ring

STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 3: FUNGI



1 - Filamentous portion of the fungal body

2 - Primary material found in fungal walls

3 - Term for a mat of fungal filaments

4 - Specialized absorption structure produced by parasitic fungi

5 - General pH range which is most suitable for the growth of fungi

6 - Enzyme which breaks down cellulose

7 - The taxonomic division of organisms which includes bread mold

8 - Structure in bread molds which, after meiosis forms spores

9 - Structure in bread mold which forms cells which act as gametes

10 - Term for the fusion of gametes

11 - Term for the fusion of the cytoplasm of two cells

12 - Bread mold structures which absorb nutrients

13 - Specialized type asexual reproduction in yeasts

14 - Gas which causes dough to rise

15 - Group of fungi which has underground, tuber-like sporocarps

16 - Group of fungi which do not have an observable sexual stage

17 - Genus of the organism which is used to produce soy paste

18 - Structures which give a blue color to blue cheese

19 - Asexual spore produced by Aspergillis

20 - Toxin produced by Aspergillis when peanuts are stored at a high
	moisture content

21 - A cause of ring worm

22 - Fungal group most frequently associated with lichens

23 - Ecological role of lichens

24 - Lichen growth form which is leaf-like

25 - Specialized structure formed in the division of Dikaryotic
       cells in basidiomycetes

26 - The stalk of a basidiospore

27 - Number of basidiospores formed on a Basidium

28 - Primary edible ascomycete

29 - Synonym for a mushroom cap

30 - Structure which is covered with Basidia in mushrooms

31 - Term for the large circular arrangement of mushroom fruiting bodies

32 - Structure found in the poisonous Amanita but not in the edible mushroom

33 - Hallucinogen produced by a Basidiomycete and originally used by the Mayan
	Indians

34 - Fungi with septate cells which form conidiospores

35 - Asexual spore produced by ascomycetes

36 - Group of fungi which contains the Dutch Elm organism

37 - Ergot structures which when ingested restricts blood flow

38 - Number of nuclei in a dikaryon

39 - General term for an organism which forms + and - strains

40 - Number of spores formed in an ascus

41 - Sterile hairs produced in an ascocarp

42 - Type of ascocarp which has a narrow opening

43 - Fungal group which produce a cleistothecium

44 - Group of fungal organisms which includes morels

45 - Group of fungi which are characterized by enclosed Basidiocarps

46 - Specifically what is the "smoke" produced by puffballs

47 - In the rust fungi, spores are not produced in Basidiocarps, but in masses
	called sori

48 - Term which means two hosts

49 - In wheat stem rust:
            ·The spore produced on Barberry
            ·A dikaryotic spore
            ·A monokaryotic spore
            ·Spore which infects Barberry
            ·Host where meiosis occurs

50 - Spore type which composes the black "stuff" in corn smut

51 - General term for a root with an associated fungus which increases root
	absorption

52 - Mycorrhizae which occurs within cortical cells

53 - Type of mycorrhizae which form arbuscles



LECTURE OUTLINE

UNIT 3: FUNGI

A - General characteristics
   1 - Cells
       a - Eukaryotic, separate evolutionary line, all heterotrophic
       b - Wall: chitin
       c - body filamentous-hyphae, mycelia
       d - absorbing structures; saprophytes: rhizoids; parasites: haustoria
       e - growth at acid pH
       f - no motile cells

B - Divisions
   1 - Zygomycetes - non-septate, coenocytic
      a - bread mold - Rhizopus stolons, rhizoids, gametangia, zygosporangium
           meiosis-spores
      b - Pilobulus - dung, photosensitive

C - Characteristics and Life Cycle
   1 - Ascomycetes - sac fungi
   2 - Septate
        ascogonium and antheridia, plasmogemy forms, dikaryon, ascocarp
        formation involves karyogamy, diploid nucleus divides by meiosis - 
        followed by mitosis
        - forms 8 ascospores

D - Types of ascocarps
   1 - apothecium
   2 - perithecium
   3 - cleistothecium

E - Importance of Fungi
   1 - plant diseases
        a - powdery mildew
        b - Dutch elm
        c - apple scab
        d - chestnut blight
        e - ergot - sclerotia LDA
        f - Claviceps
   2 - foods
        a - yeasts - budding
        b - fermentation - Saccharomyces, anaerobic, carbon dioxide and
		ethanol, Baking, brewing-malting, amylase, wine      
        c - food supplement
   3 - Morels - convoluted hymenium
   4 - Truffels - subterranean, tuber-like sporocarps, mycelia oak
   5 - Cheeses - fungal growth, distinctive flavor - bleu, garganzola, stilton
   6 - Deuteromycetes - Fungi Imperfecti, asexual - conidia, no sexual stage
        a - Penicillium - Fleming
        b - bleu cheese
        c - Aspergillis - soy sauce, saki, citric acid, aflatoxins
        d - Ringworm, Athlete's foot
        e - nematode trapping fungi


LICHENS - mutualistic alga and fungus Example: Ascomycete and cyanobacterium A - Growth - slow, soil pioneers, environmental pollution indicators, may be controlled parasitism B - Form - crustose, foleose, fruticose - Cladonia C - Reproduction - soredia asexual, ascocarp
7 - Basidiomycetes - septate, dolipore a - Life cycle - fusion, plasmogamy, division of dikaryons via clamp connections, karyongomy, formation of basidiocarp - meiosis, 4 basiodiospores, sterigma, basidium b - Gill - Hymenomycetes Basidiospores exposed (a) pore - wood rotting, cellulose, Fomes (b) mushrooms I - Edible (1) Common edible - Agaricus: fairy rings (2) Shiitake - oak logs, food source - protein (3) others - oyster, Portobebello II - Toxic (1) Amanita - destroying angel, amatoxins (2) Psilocybe - hallucinogen, psilocybin, LSD 8 - Gasteromycetes - enclosed basidiocarps a - Puffballs - edible, spore mass b - Stink horns - order attracts flies c - Bird's nest - eggs contain basidiospores d - Earth stars 9 - Teliomycetes - no basidiocarp - spores in masses - sori, parasitic haustoria a - Rusts - wheat stem rust has barberry as an alternate host - heteroecious Barberry - aeciospores Wheat - urediniospores, teliospores, basidiospores also, white-pine blister rust, cedar-apple rust b - Smuts - corn, black mass of spores
MYCORRHIZAE - mutualistic, plant increased mineral absorption a - endo: hyphae inside form vesicles and arbuscles b - ecto: external hyphal sheath, temperate trees
TABLE - SUMMARY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAJOR GROUPS OF FUNGI
Group
Characteristics
Division Myxomycota
(slime molds)
No hyphae or cell walls
Engulf food particles
Cellular slime molds Colony of amoeboid cells aggregate into a
pseudoplasmodium for asexual spore production
Plasmodial slime molds Multinucleate mass of protoplasm
Division Eumycota ("true" fungi) Composed of hyphae and have a rigid cell wall
External digestion of food
Flagellate fungi (Class Oomycetes) Coenocytic hyphae; Flagellate reproductive cells
Nonflagellate fungi No flagellate cells
Class Zygomycetes Coenocytic hyphae - chitin in wall
No conspicuous reproductive structures
Class Ascomycetes Hyphae with crosswalls - chitin in wall
Conspicuous structure (ascocarp) associated with sexual reproduction
Meiosis to produce ascospores occursin the ascus
Class Basidiomycetes Hyphae with crosswalls, chitin in wall
Conspicuous structure (basidiocarp) associated with sexual reproduction
Meiosis to produce basidiospores occurs in the basidium
Class Deuteromycetes Hyphae with crosswalls
No known sexual state - chitin in walls


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