UNIT 4: UNICELLULAR PROTISTA

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Oogamy Oomycetes  Potato Famine  Pennate  Selerotium
Oospores Cellulose  Chytrid  Centrate  Biflagelate
Zoospores Saprolegnia  Sirenin  Diatomaceous Earth  Peridinin
Plasmophore Oogonium  Myxamoebae  Dinoflagellates  Breuetoxin
Enology Syngamy  Pseudoplasmodium  Red Tide  Zooxanthallae
Damping-off Downy Mildew  Chrysophyta  Euglenoids   
Chemotaxis Bordeaux Mixture  Diatoms  Pellicle   
Plasmodium Phytopthora  Phytoplankton  Pyrenoid   

STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 4: UNICELLULAR PROTISTA
1 - Primary cell wall component in oomycetes

2 - The largest of the two gametes associated with reproduction in oogamy

3 - Structure which produces cells that produce nuclei in oomycete sexual
    reproduction

4 - Thick-walled resting spores produced by Saprolegnia

5 - Motile cells produced by comycetes

6 - Name of the first chemical fungicide

7 - Division which includes the potato late blight

8 - Hormone which stimulates the production of female Allomyces gametes

9 - Food for slime molds

10 - Stored carbohydrate in slime molds

11 - Term for the naked mass of protoplasm in the noncellular slime molds

12 - Group of organisms studied by phycologists

13 - Slime mold cells which are involved in plasmogamy

14 - Form of stored food which is characteristic of animals

15 - Term for the individual and separate cells which move as a group in the
     cellular slime molds

16 - Carbohydrate reserve in the chrysophyta

17 - Meaning of Enology

18 - General term for all diatoms which are elongated in shape

19 - Major component in diatom cell walls

20 - Class which has the greatest amount of total photosynthesis

21 - Algal material was commonly added to toothpaste

22 - Storage carbohydrate in dinoflagellates

32 - Primary red tide Genus

24 - A month when the red tide is more likely to occur

25 - Specialized coral animal cells which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates

26 - Material contained in plates which form the dinoflagellate cell wall

27 - Term which refers to the specialized Euglena cell wall composed the
     plasma membrane plus protein strips

28 - Specialized area of a chloroplast which serves as a center for starch
     formation

KINGDOM PROTISTA

UNIT 4: LECTURE OUTLINE
Kingdom Protista



A - General characteristics

	1 - Eukaryotic cells, separate evolutionary lines, artificial grouping
	2 - Obtain nutrients - autotrophic, heterotrophic, ingest
 	3 - Reproduction - asexual, sexual, some form spores
 	4 - Walls - absent or present with chitin or cellulose
 	5 - Stored foods - glycogen or starch


B - Divisions

    1 - Oomycetes - oogamy forms oospores, store glycogen, cellulose walls
        Examples:
        a - water molds
            1. Achyla - male and female hormones (antheridol and hormone c)
            2. Saprolegnia - fish gills, violin resonance
        b - Downy mildew - cottony growths - hyphae inside leaf
            Plasmophora - threatened grape growth, Bordeaux mixture
            controls disease
        c - Late blight - Pytophthora, 1846, Irish potato blight - 800,000 
            starved

    2 - Division Chytrids
        a - Allomyces - sirenen is female sex hormone, attracts male gametes

    3 - Plasmodial slime molds, (myxomycota) non-cellular, amoeboid cells, naked mass of
                protoplasm - plasmodium forms sporangia, store glycogen,
                example: Stemonitis, Physarum

    4 - Cellular slime molds, (acrasiomycota) amoeboid cells, form pseudoplasmodium forms,
                sporangia, cellulose walls, store glycogen

    5 - Division Chysophyta - autotrophic
        a - class diatoms, fucoxanthum, centrate, bilateral, silicon dioxide
                division, progressively smaller with size restored by sexual reproduction
            Uses - filter, mild abrasive

    6 - Dinoflagellates - Pyrrophyta
        a - biflagellates - spinning motion
        b - pigment - peridinin red, carotenoid, store starch
        c - cellulose plates (theca) form wall
        d - bioluminescent
        e - toxin production - Gonyaulax, red tide, concentrated in shell fish
        f - endosymbionts - coral, zooxanthallae

    7 - Euglenoids - animal and plant characteristics 
        a - outer covering pellicles
        b - storage: paramylon
        c - pyrenoid - chloroplast starch formation
Table: Comparative Summary of Characteristics in Ten Divisions of Protista
Division
Number of
Species
Carbohydrate
Food Reserve
Cell Wall
Component
Special
Pigmentation 
Simple: (unicellular)
Oomycota 
(water molds)
580 Glycogen Cellulose   
Chytridiomycota
(Chytrids)
575 Glycogen Chitin, other 
Polymers
 
Acrasiomycota 
(cellular slime molds)
70 Glycogen Cellulose  
Myxomycota 
(Plasmodial slime molds)
500 Glycogen  None  
Chrysophyta 
(chrysophytes and diatoms)
6700 Chrysolaminarin 
Oils, fats
None, or Cellulose, 
with silica scales in 
some; silica in diatoms
Chlorophyll C 
Fucoxanthin
Pyrrhophyta 
(dinoflagellates)
2100 Starch Cellulose, other 
materials
Chlorophyll C
Euglenophyta 
(euglenoids)
1000 Paramylon No cell wall; 
have a mostly 
proteinaceous pellicle
Chlorophyll b
 
Division
Number of
Species
Carbohydrate
Food Reserve
Cell Wall
Component
Special
Pigmentation 
Complex: (multicellular)
*Rhodophyta 5000 Floridean starch Sulfated galactons, 
cellulose, calcium 
carbonate in many
Chlorophyll d 
Phycobilings- 
Phycoerythrin 
Phycocyanin
*Phaeophyta 
(brown algae)
1500 Laminarin, 
mannitol
Cellulose matrix 
with alginic acids 
(Polysaccharides)
Chlorophyll c 
Fucoxanthin
*Chlorophyta 
(green algae)
7000 Starch Polysaccharides, 
sometimes cellulose
Chlorophyll b

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