Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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Pit Connections Algin Rhodophyta Isomorphic Haploid
Phycobilins Mannitol Phycoerythrin Receptacle
Agar Chlorophyta Phycocyanin Conceptacle
Coralline Pyrenoids Gelidium Fucexanthin
Carpospores Spirogyra Floridean Starch Chlorella
Tetraspores Ulothrix Carrageenan Volvocine
Holdfast Isogametes Dulse Siphonous
Stipe Chalamydomonas Porphyra Tetrasporine
Blade Volvox Polysiphonia Zygospore
Laminaria Anisogamy Acetabularia Protococcus
Sargassum Oogamy Cap Morphology  



1 - Specialized structure between adjacent red algal cells

2 - Genus of algae which is used as a source of commercial agar

3 - Sugar which is polymerized in agar

4 - The role of accessory pigments

5 - The general color of phycocyanins

6 - Primary food storage material in red algae

7 - Weak gelling agent found in Chondrus

8 - Algal food which served as an emergency food for starving Irish peasants

9 - Group of algae which are important in the building of coral reefs

    In the Polysiphonia life cycle (Questions 10,11,12)

10 - Cell formed as a result of fertilization

11 - Spores formed as a result of meiosis

12 - Structure formed from carpospores

13 - Group of algae which includes kelps

14 - Chemical composition of pit connections

15 - Chemical material which is deposited by coralline algae

16 - Thickening agent produced by brown algae

17 - General fertile area of brown algae

18 - Storage carbohydrate in the brown algae

19 - Sugar alcohol which is transported in brown algae

20 - Structure which forms the egg in the brown algae

21 - Group of algae which is commonly used as a fertilizer

22 - Group of organisms which is thought to be the progenitors of higher

23 - General evolutionary algal group which illustrates the volvocine tendency

24 - The characteristic of the Tetrasporine group

25 - Center of starch formation in the Spirogyra chloroplast

26 - Organism which has a ribbon-like chloroplast

27 - Evolutionary tendency illustrated by Ulva



A - Characteristics

   1 - Red algae - tropical marine waters
       Multicelular, complex, specialized pit connections, store
       floridean starch

   2 - Pigments - chlorophyll a, phycobilins - phycocyanin, phycoerythrin
       permit photosynthesis at a greater depth

       (1) Gelidium - agar: sulfonated polymer of galactose
       (2) Chordrus - Irish moss - forms carrageenan: wall flexibility 
           and commercial weak gelling agent
       (3) Dulse - emergency food for Irish peasants
       (4) Coralline group - deposit calcium carbonate and assist in
           building of coral reefs
       (5) Porphyra - cultivated as a food source
       (6) Polysiphonia - life cycle: carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte,
           isomorphic haploid gametophytes

B - Brown algae - Phaeophyta, many large species

       (1) Laminaria - holdfast, stipe floats - CO, largest
       (2) Sargassum - floating masses, sargasso sea ecosystem
       (3) Macrocystis, Nerocystis - intercalary meristem
           algin - flexibility and gelling agent
           Laminarin is storage carbohydrate
           Mannitol is primary translocated material
       (4) Fucus - life cycle: receptacle - conceptacles, antheridia, oogonia

C - Economic Importance

       1 - fertilizer - concentrate ions
       2 - food value

D - Green Algae - Chlorophyta, most diverse group of protista
                  proposed progenitors of plant kingdom

        (1) Unicellular
            (a) Chlorella - oxygen source, food value
        	(b) Reproduction -      
            	(a) asexual - fragmentation
	            (b) sexual - isogamous, conjugation tube, zygospores
	  (2) Filaments - characteristics - Spirogyra - fresh
                water, floating mosses; chloroplasts ribbon-like,
                pyrenoids - center for stored formation
	  (3) - Volvocine - colonies
		   1 - Volvox - adhesion of cells form motile colony
		   2 - Protococcus - colonial cell clusters, tree bark
	  (4) - Multinucleate (or large cells)
		   1 - Valonia - very large multinucleate cell, cellulose, microfibrils
		       form vesicle
		   2 - Acetabularia - large uninucleate cell, importance of nucleus in
		       cap development
	  (5) - Tetrasporine - complex multicellular
               Sea lettuce - Ulva, flattened green sheets, isomorphic

1. As a thickening agent in toppings, pastry fillings, meringues, potato salad, canned foods, gravies, dry mixes, bakery jellies, icings, dietetic foods, flavored syrups, candies, puddings
2. As an emulsifier and suspension agent in soft drinks and concentrates, salad dressings, barbecue sauces, frozen food batters
3. As a stabilizer in chocolate drinks, eggnog, ice cream, sherbets, sour cream, coffee creamers, party dips, buttermilk, dairy toppings, milkshakes, marshmallows
1. Provides better ink and varnish holdout on paper surfaces; provides uniformity of ink acceptance, reduction in coating weight and improved holdout of oil, wax, and solvents in paperboard products; makes improved coating for frozen food cartons
2. Used for coating greaseproof papers
1. Thickens print paste and improved dye dispersal. Reduces weaving time and eliminates damage to printing rolls or screens
and Cosmetics
1. As a thickening agent in weight-control products, cough syrups, suppositories, ointments, toothpasts, shampoos, eye makeup
2. As a smoothing agent in lotions, creams, lubricating jellies; as a binder in manufacture of pills; as a blood anticoagulant
3. As a suspension agent for liquid vitamins, mineral oil emulsions, antibiotics; as a gelling agent for facial beuty masks, dental impression compounds
Industrial Uses
1. Used in manufacture of acidic cleaners, films, seed coverings, welding rod flux, ceramic flazes, boiler compounds (prevents minerals from precipitating on tubes), leather finishes, sizing, various rubber compounds (e.g., automobile tires, electric insulation, foam cushions, baby pants), cleaners, polishes, latex paints, adhesives, tapes, patching plaster, crack fillers, wall joint cement, fiberglass battery plates, insecticides, resins, tungsten filaments for light bulbs, digestible surgical gut (disappears by the time the incision is healed), oil well-drilling mud
2. Used in clarification of beet sugar; mixed with alfalfa and grain meals in dairy and poultry feeds
1. Helps create creamier beer foam with smaller, longer-lasting bubbles

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