UNIT 7: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

Study Questions  Lecture Outline
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KEY WORDS

Lignin Dichotomous Microspores Fiddlehead Lepidodendron
Sieve Elements Homosporous Megaspores Circinate Vernation Azolla
Tracheary Elements Lycophyta Isoetes Sori Silicon Granules
Tracheids Carboniferous Rhynia Indusium Lycopodium
Vessels Lycopodium Sphenophyta Lip Cells Heterospory
Protostele Microphylls Calamites Annulus Carboniferous
Siphonostele Strobili Equisetum Prothallus Cambium
Eustele Selaginella Pterophyta Pinnae Lignite
Psilophyta Heterosporous Fronds Rachis Corm
Ligule Horsetails      


STUDY QUESTIONS

UNIT 7: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

1 - Conducting cell type found in the phloem

2 - Conducting cell type found in the xylem

3 - Material which is tranlocated in the phloem

4 - Stele pattern which has a tubular arrangement

5 - Tissues included in the stele

6 - Most primitive stele pattern

7 - Geologic period when seedless vascular plants flourished

8 - Type of stem branching in Psilotum

9 - Dominant generation in Psilotum

10 - Stele type in Psilotum

11 - Structure where Psilotum sperm are formed

12 - Common name for Psilotum nudum

13 - Primary geologic period for coal formation

14 - Common name for Isoetes

15 - Specialized underground stem in Isoetes

16 - A distinctive characteristic concerning the type of growth in Isoetes

17 - Single genus in the Sphenophyta

18 - Largest and most dominant fossil member of the Sphenophyta

19 - Primary photosynthetic organ in Scouring Rushes

20 - Plants which have whorled leaves and jointed stems

21 - A genus included in the club moss group

22 - Specialized very small leaf found in club mosses

23 - Type of stele found in Lycopodium

24 - Dominant generation in Lycopodium

25 - Spore type produced by the male Selaginella gametophyte

26 - Habitat for Azolla and Salvinia

27 - Specialized metabolic sequence which is associated with Azolla symbionts

28 - Term for fern leaflets

29 - Term for the special pattern of Fiddlehead unrolling

30 - Term for a cluster of fern sporangia

31 - Specialized membrane-like structure covering fern sporangia

32 - Type of stele found in ferns

33 - Term for the specialized type of fern stem

34 - Specialized layer of fern cells with an uneven thickening pattern

35 - Term for the heart-shaped fern gametophyte

36 - Fern structure which contains the egg

37 - Fern structure where fertilization occurs


LECTURE OUTLINE

UNIT 7: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

A. Evolution of vascular tissue - Tracheophyta
   1 - Xylem - water
   2 - Phloem - food

B. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
   1 - roots
   2 - leaves
       a - microsporophylls
       b - megasporophylls - lamina (blade)
   3 - Reproduction - spores
       a - homospory
       b - heteropsory
           (1) megaspores
           (2) microspores
   4 - Heteromorphic life cycle
   5 - Vascular tissue (stele) patterns
       a - prostostele
       b - siphonostele
       c - eustele (advanced)

C. DIVISIONS - many plants are extinct
   1 - Rhyniophyta - all extinct
   2 - Psilophyta - 2 living genera, among first vascular plants
       EXAMPLE: Psilotum - (whisk ferns)
           Characteristics:
               - Lacks roots and leaves, protostele, homosporous
               - Life cycle - underground gametophye
   3 - Lycophyta - dominant in Carboniferous period
           (1) Lycopodium - (ground pine) protostele, strobilus
           	   (a) life cycle - subterranean gametophyte, homosporous
           (2) Selaginella - first example of heterospory
           	   (a) Characteristics: megaspores, microspores, protostele
           	   (b) Life cycle - strobilus
           (3) Isoetes - (quillworts), heterosporous, fleshy stem (corm), 
                   specialized cambial activity
   4 - Sphenophyta - mostly extinct
       Calamites -fossil trees that were dominant in the Carboniferous 
	 one living genus:
       Equisetum - homosporous, strobilus
        a - horsetails - jointed stems
        b - scouring rush - silicon granules
   5 - Pterophyta - (ferns)
        a - Characteristics: dissected leaves, most are homosporous, rhizome,
            siphonostele, fiddleheads (circinate vernation)
        b - Life cycle: sorus, annulus, lip cells, heart-shape gametophyte


Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants
Division
Genus
Spores
Stele
PsilophytaPsilotum homosporousprotostele
LycophytaLycopodium homosporousprotostele
Selaginella heterosporousprotostele
Isoetes heterosporousspecialized corm
SphenophytaEquisetum homosporousprotostele
Pterophyta  usually homosporoussiphonostele


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